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Legion

A Data-Centric Parallel Programming System

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Hello World

No tutorial would be complete without a Hello World example. Below is the source code for writing Hello World using the Legion C++ runtime interface. The source code can also be found in the tutorial directory of the repository, along with a Makefile for building and running the application. By walking through these tutorial programs in detail we will demonstrate how to use the Legion C++ runtime API.

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#include <cstdio>
#include "legion.h"

using namespace Legion;

enum TaskID {
  HELLO_WORLD_ID,
};

void hello_world_task(const Task *task,
                      const std::vector<PhysicalRegion> &regions,
                      Context ctx, Runtime *runtime) {
  printf("Hello World!\n");
}

int main(int argc, char **argv)
{
  Runtime::set_top_level_task_id(HELLO_WORLD_ID);

  {
    TaskVariantRegistrar registrar(HELLO_WORLD_ID, "hello_world variant");
    registrar.add_constraint(ProcessorConstraint(Processor::LOC_PROC));
    Runtime::preregister_task_variant<hello_world_task>(registrar, "hello_world task");
  }

  return Runtime::start(argc, argv);
}

Legion Namespaces

All Legion programs begin by including the legion.h header file (line 2). This file includes the entire Legion C++ runtime API. Line 4 imports the Legion namespace into the current program making most of the necessary types for writing Legion programs available. There are other Legion runtime namespaces that we will encounter in later examples. Detailed documentation for Legion runtime namespaces can be found here.

Registering Legion Tasks

On lines 6-8 we define an enumeration for storing the IDs that we will direct the Legion runtime to associate with each task. In this example we only need a single ID which we will associate with our ‘Hello World’ task. Lines 21-23 show how to register a Legion task with a void return type with the Legion runtime. In the next example we’ll see how to register tasks with non-void return types. The static method preregister_task_variant on the Runtime class is templated on the function pointer to be called to run the task (allowing the API to handle polymorphic return types elegantly). In this case it is templated on the function pointer to the hello_world_task on lines 10-14. Note that all Legion tasks must have the same function type (with the exception of different return types). We’ll look in detail at the arguments passed to Legion tasks in later examples. The preregister_task_variant call takes several parameters:

  • Task registrar - this object describes the task to be registered
  • Task name - a human-readable string naming the task

The task registrar itself records the ID of the task, a variant name and the constraints that apply to the variant (we cover the distinction between tasks and variants more in the next tutorial ). In this case, the variant is constrained to run on a CPU processor (LOC, or latency optimized core).

There are additional parameters that can be passed to preregister_task_variant call as can be seen in the documentation. We’ll examine some of these additional parameters in later examples.

All Legion programs begin with a top-level task which starts off a Legion program. The Legion runtime must be told which task to use as the top-level task using the set_top_level_task_id static method. Line 17 invokes this method to register the ID we associate with the hello_world_task as being the ID of the top-level task.

Legion Runtime Start-Up

When writing Legion programs, all the static member function invocations on the Runtime class must be performed before the static method start is called. It is imperative that this standard be followed for all Legion programs to ensure that they operate properly when running as MPI or GASNet programs. Legion also supports dynamic registrations of task variants using the register_task_variant method after the start method is called for programs that dynamically generate JIT-compiled tasks such as ones built on Terra. After the runtime has been setup to run, the program invokes the start static method on the Runtime class. This call starts the Legion runtime and only returns an error code if a problem is encountered during execution.

After start is called, the Legion runtime will perform any necessary setup operations and will then invoke the top-level task. In this program the top-level task prints “Hello World” and then returns. After the top-level task completes, the Legion runtime will tear itself down (abiding by GASNet or MPI conventions when necessary) and exit.

Next Example: Tasks and Futures